Dictionary of terms - Клініка Стефана Хміля

Dictionary of terms

Amenorrhea it is the absence of menstruation more than 6 months.

Primary amenorrhea is observed when the woman of reproductive age never has a menstruation.

Secondary amenorrhea is observed when woman has no menstruation during 6 months or more after regular or irregular menstruations.

Androgens are masculine sexual hormones.

Aneuploidy is an abnormal number of chromosomes, when one or some chromosomes from an ordinary number are absent or presented by complementary copies.

Antenatal (prenatal) period is a period which lasts from the moment of  fertilization to the child birth.

Asthenozoospermia is the medical term for reduced mobility of spermatozoons.

An autosome is a chromosome that is not a sex chromosome. A human has 22 pair of autosomes, and, also, there are the X and Y sex chromosomes.

Azoospermia is the absence of spermatozoon in semen. It is divided into obstructive and secretory.

Obstructive azoospermia is a form of men’s infertility in which the passage of sperm is blocked. Men who suffer azoospermia have few or no sperm in their ejaculate.

Azoospermia secretory is lied to the impairment of secretion of spermatozoons.

Chorionic gonadotropin is one of the first specific hormones of pregnancy.

Chromosomal aberration is a general name for different types of mutations and any change in the normal structure or number of chromosomes – deletions, translocations, inversions, duplications.

Chromosomes are organized buildings of DNA and protein that is found in cells. It is a single piece of coiled DNA containing many genes, regulatory elements and other nucleotide sequences.

Cryopreservation is a method by which it is possible to keep embryos which can be used for additional attempts. We can also conserve gametes (spermatozoons and ovules).

Deletion is a type of chromosomal mutation when a part of a chromosome or a sequence of DNA is missing. Deletion is the loss of genetic material.

Embryo transfer refers to a step in the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF) whereby one or several embryos are placed into the uterus of the female with the intent to establish a pregnancy.

Embryonic period is the period of growth of organism from the moment of fertilization. It lasts 8 weeks. From this term and to birth an embryo is named a fetus.

Endometrium is the inner mucous membrane lining the uterus, which thickens during the menstrual cycle in preparation for possible implantation of an embryo.

Endometriosis is a disease characterized by excrescence of endometrial tissue outside the endometrium and can be the reason of infertility.

Estrogen is a female sexual hormone produced by the ovaries. The three major naturally occurring estrogens are estradiol, estriol and estrone.

Extra-uterine pregnancy is pathological pregnancy when implantation of embryo passed outside of the cavity of uterus.

Fallopian tubes are appendages which begin from an uterus in the area of its corners and go to the lateral side of pelvis. Its length is about 10-12 sm. A fertilization pass in the part of fallopian tubes.

Fertilisation is the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism. The process involves the fusion of an ovum with a sperm, which eventually leads to the development of an embryo.

Fertility is a capacity for reproduction.

FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) is a hormone secreted by the pituitary which promotes the formation of ovaries.

Gamete is the name of two types of male and female reproductive cells (ovules and spermatozoons).

Gene is the unit of inherited information which is transferred from a parent to offspring and is held to determine some features or characteristic of the offspring.

Hatching is a incision of external membrane of embryo, for example, by a laser, for facilitating its implantation.

Hormones are biologically active substances which are secreted by endocrine glands and cause the difficult and multifunction effect on certain organs, tissues or on an organism in general.

Infertility is an inability of a person to contribute to conception. The couple is consider to be infertile if there is no pregnancy during after 12 months of contraceptive-free intercourse.

IVF is a method of helping a woman to have a baby in which an egg is removed from one of her ovaries, fertilized outside her body, and then replaced in her uterus. IVF is an abbreviation for `in vitro fertilization’.

Implantation is attaching of embryo to the mucous membrane lining the uterus. It is an event that occurs early in pregnancy in which the embryo adheres to the wall of uterus. At this stage of prenatal development, the embryo is a blastocyst. It is by this adhesion that the fetus receives the oxygen and the nutrients from the mother to be able to grow.

Intrauterine insemination is one of methods of treatment of infertility and is realized by introduction of properly prepared sperm to the uterus of woman in the period of ovulation.

ICSI (Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection) is a method of in vitro fertilization. One spermatozoon is set in the ovule. ICSI is an in vitro fertilization procedure in which a single sperm is injected directly into an egg.

Karyotype is a set of chromosomes specific for every type of organisms. Normal karyotype of person consists of 46 chromosomes from them 22 pair of autosomes and 2 sexual chromosomes.

Luteinising hormone (LH) is a hormone that stimulates ovulation and transformation of follicle in a yellow body.

Mutation is a change in the inherited structures (DNA, genes, chromosomes).

Myoma is a benignant tumour which consists of muscular and connective tissues.

Oligozoospermia is a reduction of amount of spermatozoons in sperm.

Ovaries are two female organs of oval form. An ovary is the organ of double function: internal secretion (products estrogenic hormones and progesterone) and external secretion (products ovules).

Ovulation is a rupture of mature follicle and output from its cavity of the ovule.

Ovulation induction is the method of treatment of infertility in base of which lies influence on the receptors of sexual glands by medical preparations which contain hormones. The induction of ovulation is appointed to assistance of ripening and output of ovule from a follicle.

Pituitary gland (hypophisis) is an endocrine gland. The pituitary gland regulates growth, development and functions of other endocrine glands (sexual, thyroid, adrenal and others). It is located at the base of the brain.

Progesterone is produced mainly by a yellow body. Its main function is directed on providing of favourable conditions for implantation of embryo in endometrium and development of fertile egg.

Prolactin is a hormone, produced by a hypophysis. Prolactin supports the function of yellow body and stimulates the secretion of milk after accouchement.

Prostate (prostate gland) is an organ in the body of men which is situated at the neck of the bladder and produces a liquid which forms part of semen.

Puncture of follicles is a puncture of follicle by a very thin cannula for getting an ovule.

Semen analysis is the analysis of sperm (ejaculate). Standard spermogram takes into account physical parameters: capacity of sperm, its color, viscosity, pH and microscopic parameters: amount, mobility of spermatozoons, contents of other cells and other. On the base of this information it is possible to diagnose masculine infertility, prostatitis, presence of inflammation or infections.

Teratospermia or teratozoospermia is a condition characterized by the presence of sperm with abnormal morphology that affects fertility in males. (w)

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (also known as TSH or thyrotropin) is a peptide hormone synthesized and secreted by thyrotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland, which regulates the endocrine function of the thyroid gland.(w)

Uterus is a hollow organ of pear-shaped form, which consists of body, isthmus and cervix. The length of cavity of unpregnant uterus is 7-8 sm. 2/3 it is a body, and 1/3 it is a cervix. The uterus or womb is a major female hormone-responsive reproductive sex organ. One end, the cervix, opens into the vagina, while the other is connected to fallopian tubes.

Yellow body (corpus luteum) is a temporal endocrine gland. It is progesterone-secreting mass of cells that forms in an ovary after ovulation in the place of follicle. The yellow body produces a hormone progesterone.

Zygote is a diploid (containing the complete set of chromosomes) cell which appears as a result of fertilization (confluence of ovule and spermatozoon).

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