Receiving spermatozoa by operative methods (TESE I MESA)
Even if the spermatozoa are completely absent in the ejaculate, they can be obtained directly from the testicles by TESE (testicular sperm extraction) or epididymides by the MESA method (microsurgical epididymal aspiration of sperm). In the course of these small surgical operation, a microscopic piece of tissue containing spermatozoa is obtained.
The obtained spermatozoa have a laboratory preparation for fertilization by ICSI. After fertilization, the embryos are cultured and transferred to the uterine cavity, as in the IVF procedure.
It should be borne in mind that in the case of severe non-obstructive oligozoospermia, as well as azoospermia of obstructive and non-obstructive origin, infertility may have genetic causes and be inherited by male or lead to the birth of a child with hereditary illness. In this case, competent genetic counseling and examination of a man and in some cases his wife is necessary. Only with the integrated approach to the diagnosis and treatment of infertility can one achieve the birth of a healthy child.