During a pelvic ultrasound of a woman is examined uterus, endometrium, fallopian tubes, ovaries and bladder.
The position, form, the main dimensions of the uterus and the structure of its walls are determined; the medial uterine structures are examined: uterine cavity and endometrium.
The condition of the ovaries about the uterus, their size, the size of the follicles and the yellow body (the formation that remains on the site of the follicles after the egg cell is released from the ovary) is evaluated.
Comparison to the phase of the menstrual cycle is also made .
Doctors determine the presence of fluid (normally after oocyte escape, it presents in small quantities) and the presence of tumor formations in the small pelvic cavity.
In addition to the structure of the uterus and ovaries, during the ultrasound exam the state of the bladder is also evaluated(with its sufficient filling).
The study makes it possible to diagnose congenital abnormalities of the uterus, the presence of which may be the cause of infertility or can increase the risk of premature birth, involuntary abortion, fetal death, fetal abnormality and violation of labor activity.
With ultrasound exam of the pelvic organs, an internal endometriosis or adenomyosis (enlargement of the endometrium in the uterus wall) and endometrioid ovarian cysts are detected. The diagnostics of endometriosis is important for predicting the possibility of pregnancy (endometriosis may be the cause of infertility).
Ultrasound allows you to diagnose a pregnancy from 3-4 weeks. Earlier you can determin pregnancies only with the help of a transvaginal sensor. Diagnostics of different types of ectopic pregnancy is also possible.
With medical ultrasound, the process of setting up and removing intrauterine contraceptives is controlled. The wrong placement, partial or complete loss of the IUD from the uterine cavity, the ingrowing of parts of the contraceptive in the walls of the uterus can be detected through the method. If you are planning a pregnancy, after the removal of the intrauterine device, the doctor will recommend you to do an ultrasound exam.
Hyperplastic processes of the endometrium (hyperplasia, polyps, malignant endometrial tumors), and different formations of the ovaries can also be found.
Indications for an ultrasound examination of the pelvis
Medical ultrasound of the pelvis is prescribed in the following cases:
♦ with complaints of pain at the bottom of the abdomen;
♦ in the irregular menstrual cycle, violations of the cycle;
♦ in the presence of secretions from the vagina outside the menstrual cycle (as well as during menopause);
♦ to control the development of the fetus during pregnancy;
♦ when setting up or removing intrauterine contraceptives;
♦ after abortion;
♦ suspected of being pregnant (ultrasound can detect pregnancy during the first week).
In addition, some patients undergo such examination for preventive purposes – to get rid of unnecessary anxieties. Women after 40 years are recommended to undergo gynecologic ultrasonography once a year.
The procedure for ultrasound examination of pelvic organs in women is usually prescribed by a gynecologist; examination can be carried out in two ways:
♦ through the anterior abdominal wall (transabdominally);
♦ directly through the vagina (transvaginal), this method provides more accurate and detailed evidence.
The transabdominal method of ultrasound examination of the uterus and appendages is performed under the condition of a filled bladder, 1-1.5 hours before the procedure, the patient needs to drink 1 liter of fluid. When a vaginal ultrasound is used, the bladder, on the contrary, needs to be empty.
♦ Informative in the examination of women with early pregnancy.
♦ does not require special preparation.
♦ allows more detailed examination of the structure of the uterus and ovaries.
♦ Has less load than abdominal ultrasound.
In addition, to obtain the most accurate and objective data, the time of the ultrasound examination should be assigned in the first 5-7 days after the first day of menstruation. However, the procedure may be prescribed to obtain specific indicators at later phases of menstruation (e.g., to determine the period of ripening of the egg cell or to estimate the size of the follicle).