Genitourinary system diseases – Клініка Стефана Хміля

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Genitourinary system diseases

Kidney diseases are quite diverse  in their origins, manifestations and consequences for the organism. The most common are inflammatory kidney diseases, which are more common for women (pyelonephritis, glomerulonephritis). Urolithiasis occurs equally frequently among representatives of both sexes over the age of 40 years.

There are a number of key causes that can lead to the diseases:

  • Bacterial infection. Bacteria, falling into the kidneys, multiply themselves, causing inflammation. In the case of further progression of the disease and lack of treatment, there are kidney abscesses. The urinary retention contributes the development of bacterial infections.
  • Disorders of metabolism and the chemical composition of urine is the main cause of the occurrence of urolithiasis. Therefore, in the renal pelvis kidney stones are formed, which can contribute the urinary retention, injure the mucous membrane of the kidneys and ureter. This contributes to the attachment of secondary bacterial infections.
  • Impairment of blood flow in the kidney vessels. The presence of atherosclerotic plaques reduces the diameter of the vessel and leads to insufficient blood supply to the kidney cells, and develops metabolic nephropathy. This process can last for years without any manifestations.
  • Intoxication of the body. Toxins that circulate in the blood, cause metabolic disorders in the kidneys, develops toxic nephropathy. This is a reciprocal process that occurs after the toxins are stopped.
  • Hemolysis — a condition at which there is a destruction of red blood cells and release of hemoglobin in the blood. It stays in the glomeruli of the kidneys and disrupts their work. As a result, a dangerous condition develops acute renal failure.
  • Autoimmune process. As a result of failure in the immune system, antibodies are produced against kidney cells, which leads to the development of inflammation, as a result – glomerulonephritis.
  • Impairment of maturation of the kidneys in the fetal period leads to the formation of anomalies of the form (horseshoe-shaped, bifurcated kidney), position (budding of the kidney) or quantity (one or vice versa additional kidney). Renal tubules with the formation of cysts is called atresia.
  • Traumatic factors. Different types of wounds cause damage to the renal tissue with impaired functions. 


Symptoms of kidney diseases can be conventionally divided into local and general. Local symptoms are those which occurrence is directly related to the kidneys: an intensive sharp or dull back pain on one or two sides; decreased urinary excretion or its complete absence, the prevalence of night urination; changes in the color of urine, the appearance of blood in urine. General symptoms that may appear in kidney diseases are: increased body temperature, general weakness, headache and joint pain. These symptoms are the result of intoxication (toxins in the blood); increase in systemic blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg; appearance of “bags” under the eyes, swelling of the face.

For the most accurate diagnostics of kidney diseases, an additional laboratory and instrumental methods are performed, which include:

  1. Blood test — indicates the inflammatory nature of the disease by increasing the number of leukocytes and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR).
  2. Immunological analysis of blood. Increasing the titre of antibodies to renal glomeruli and the appearance of C-reactive protein (CRP) are specific markers of glomerulonephritis.
  3. Clinical urine test is a universal analysis that helps diagnose kidney disease. With this test the protein in the urine is determined and its specific density. Under the microscope the number of leukocytes and red blood cells is determined. Bacterial inflammation of the kidneys is characterized by the appearance of bacteria in the urine. The formation of stones in the kidneys is manifested by the presence of crystalline salts.
  4. Ultrasound of the kidneys — an instrumental method of diagnostics, which allows you to see changes in the shape and position of the kidneys (abnormalities), the presence of stones when urolithiasis and the presence of tumors, cysts.

Only on the basis of the results of the research with the clinical symptoms of the disease the doctor can make a final conclusion. In our medical center you can get an examination with the help of the ultrasound diagnostics, undergo laboratory tests, get qualified help of a doctor-therapeutist and urologist.

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