What is “female infertility”
According to a study of World Health Organization (WHO,1986) a couple is consider to be infertile if the couple has not conceived after 12 months of contraceptive-free intercourse if the female is under the age of 34.
In women, there are three types of infertility: primary, secondary and absolute.
- Primary infertility – such a diagnosis is put to women who turned to the clinic for the first time, while never being pregnant or giving birth. Usually these are women who are trying to get pregnant for the first time. It is necessary to remember that in this case, the period after which it is necessary to seek medical help, is 12 months of regular sexual life.
- Secondary infertility – such a diagnosis is typical for women who already had a pregnancy and gave birth to children (that is, they were pregnant), but with a repeated desire to get pregnant it fails.
- Absolute infertility – this diagnosis is not as common as the first two, but under it means the absence of the possibility of becoming pregnant naturally due to birth defects or the absence of part of the female reproductive system.
It is also worth to mention that female infertility can be congenital (various malformations) and acquired (due to gynecological diseases and various environmental factors).
Main causes of female infertility:
- Ovulation disorders (endocrine infertility) – 35-40%;
- Tubal-peritoneal factor 20-30%;
- Gynecological diseases 15-25%;
- Immunological causes 2%;
Factors that can influence on female fertility
- Age is the most important factor that reduces the likelihood of a child’s conception and bearing. Fertility of a woman begins to fall rapidly after 35 years, the chances of conceiving a child diminish markedly. Reduced fertility occurs as a result of the destruction of female genital chromosomes;
- Psychogenic factors of infertility: conflict situations in the family, at work, lack of satisfaction from sexual intercourse, and persistent desire to have a baby, or vice versa, the fear of pregnancy may cause ovulation impairment imitating endocrine infertility. Similarly, vegetative disorders induced by stressful situations can lead to discoordination of the smooth muscle cells of the fallopian tubes, and, consequently, to functional fallopian tube obstruction.
- Phisical activities and lifestyles also play an important role in women’s reproductive health. Work in adverse conditions, the prolonged influence of chemicals and toxic substances, radiation and the effect of high temperatures, can affect the fertility of women. Dirty smokers who smoke more than 20 cigarettes a day, coffee-drinkers and alcohol-drinkers also risk their future motherhood.
- The weight of a woman can affect her ability to conceive a child. The cause of infertility may become excessively small weight or overweight. Reduced body fat in the body of athletes-runners on the marathon distance and unprofessional sport fans can lead to violations of the menstrual cycle. Similarly, women with eating disorders (anorexia, bulimia) and women who adhere to strict diets are more susceptible to infertility.
Among the causes of female infertility in the first place is endocrine infertility. Often such disorders occur as a result of improper functioning of the hormones responsible for the development of the egg cells.
Endocrine infertility associated with a violation of the process of ovulation: anovulation, lack of luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, luteinization syndrome of the follicle which had not ovulation.
Anovulatory infertility may occur when lesions of any level of the reproductive system. The most frequent causes of anovulation: hyperandrogenism, hypoestrogenemia, hyperprolactinemia, metabolic disorders (obesity, severe body mass deficiency), as well as with Cushing’s disease, hypo-and hyperthyroidism.
The insufficiency of the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is associated with a reduced function of the ovary yellow body. Infertility due to insufficiency of the luteal phase is caused by a violation of the implantation of the embryo or early unwarranted miscarriage when the pregnancy is interrupted before the late period.
The second place (30%) is occupied by defects of the fallopian tube – full or partial obstruction. Normally, a meeting of an egg cell with a sperm should occur in the uterine tube, and if it is not passable, conception becomes accordingly impossible. This infertility is associated with a violation of the functional activity of the fallopian tubes, or their organic lesion. Violation of the function of the fallopian tubes is noted against the backdrop of stress, a violation of the synthesis of prostaglandins, sexual steroids.
The organic lesion of the fallopian tubes leads to their obstruction. The cause of this pathology is the inflammatory disease of the genital organs (gonorrhea, chlamydia, etc.), surgical operation on the internal genital organs, uterine tube endometriosis and other forms of external endometriosis.
Peritoneal infertility is due to the adhesive process in the area of the uterus appendages. It occurs as a result of inflammatory diseases of the genital organs, after surgical surgical operation on the organs of the abdominal cavity and small pelvis.
Infertility in gynecological diseases is associated with a violation of the implantation of the embryo in the uterine cavity with chronic endometritis, with the presence of sinechias, endometriosis, myoma of the uterus with submucosal site location, endometrial polyps.
The cause of immune infertility is the formation of antisperm antibodies in a woman (in the cervix, endometrium, fallopian tubes) leading to phagocytosis (absorption) of sperm. Flaw in the immune system of women: in the mucus of the cervix there are substances that can damage and destroy the sperm. At the same time, the viscosity or chemical composition of the mucus is disturbed, as a result, spermatozoa “get stuck” halfway. Usually this happens as a result of sexual infections or inflammation of the cervix (cervicitis).
Sometimes it is not possible to establish the true cause of infertility in the married couple, then it is a question of infertility of unexplained origin.
Statistics tell us that more and more families are suffering from infertility, so prevention of infertility among women should be in the first place.
Treatment of female inferlity in the Clinic of Professor Stefan Khmil
Treatment of female infertility in our clinic – individual programs, each of which is created for the patient, taking into account the diagnosed diseases, age, and peculiarities of the body of the woman. We recommend the treatment of infertility, which will lead to the rapid achievement of pregnancy, and the birth of a healthy child in your family.
What method of treatment of female infertility will be optimal for your family – this question can be solved by the specialists of the Clinic of Professor Stefan Khmil. At our disposal there is the achievement of international reproductive medicine, which will surely help you hear the most important word in the life of every woman – “Mom”.
Take the first step – sign up for a reception!