The nutrition of a pregnant woman should be rational: with a complete set of food products which should be properly apportioned every day that will meet the needs of the pregnant woman and the fetus. It plays an essential role in the prevention of anemia, gestosis, intrauterine growth retardation, anomalies of labor and other complications. The diet should include proteins, fats, carbohydrates, сellulose, vitamins, trace elements and water. When preparing the menu of the future mother, it is necessary to take into account her nature of employment, body weight, height and her pregnancy term.
Proteins are one of the building blocks of body tissue. Dietary sources of protein include both animals and plants: meat, fish, dairy products (cheese, sour cream, milk, kefir, yoghurt), eggs, as well as grains, legumes and nuts. During human digestion, proteins are broken down in the stomach to smaller polypeptide chains via hydrochloric acid and protease actions. This is crucial for the absorption of the essential amino acids that cannot be biosynthesized by the body. Protein does not accumulate in the body. That is, with protein deficiency, the pace of intrauterine growth of the fetus is slowing down, which may adversely affect its development in the future. Lack of protein can suppress the immunity making expectant mother more prone to infection.
Fat is an important foodstuff for the body, as it is part of the cell wall. In addition, fats are needed for the vitamin assimilation and hormone production. Foods from animal sources that are rich in saturated fats include beef, beef fat, veal, lamb, pork, lard, poultry fat, butter, cream, milk, cheeses and other dairy products made from whole and 2 percent milk. Foods from plant sources that contain saturated fat include coconut, coconut oil, cocoa butter.
Carbohydrates are divided into simple and complex. They are like a source of energy for the organism. Simple carbohydrates contained in confectionery, jam, white bread, refined sugars are better to limit, because the resulting glucose is deposited in the form of adipose tissue, increasing also the mass of the fetus. The preference should be given to complex carbohydrates, that release glucose more slowly, which gives energy. Complex carbohydrates are found in whole grains, whole grain breads.
We should not forget about cellulose, which provides the work of the digestive system. The source of cellulose can be vegetables, fruits and berries. In the spring, however, one should refrain from eating the early vegetables and fruits and prefer to buy them frozen. You should not be fond of exotic and off-season products.
It is worth to write a few words about vitamins. In a living organism, processes of assimilation and dissimulation are constantly being carried out, which are impossible without the participation of intermediaries – enzymes. Vitamins are vitally necessary for enzymes. If vitamins are not enough, then the vital necessary processes occur very slowly. Since, in the body of a woman and in the body of the fetus is very active metabolism, then, obviously, the future mother needs more vitamins than a non-pregnant woman. Of course, it’s better to get vitamins naturally by taking vegetables, fruits and berries. However, it is worth remembering that vitamins are destroyed by heat treatment, improper storage. And it’s a bit uncomfortable to count what fruits the woman consumed and how much vitamins she received. To compensate for the deficiency of vitamins – hypovitaminosis – the special vitamin complexes was developed for pregnant women.
Ensuring the organism of pregnant woman by the microelements, especially calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, iron is of particular importance.
The amount of water should be 1-1.5 liters a day.
5 meals a day – it is a healthy diet, three meals a day – the main ones and two meals – snacks. It is better to eat carbohydrates in the first half of the day, thus giving the organism the energy. For example, it may be porridge with dried fruits or with a salad for breakfast, followed by a bite after 3-4 hours in the form of an apple or other fruit. For lunch, you should prefer a meat or fish dish, maybe a soup. The best method of cooking are stewing, baking, but not frying. The second snack, for example, nuts, sunflower seeds, pumpkin seeds should be taken 3 hours after lunch. For dinner it is good to use dairy products.
Dear mommy! It is necessary for you and your baby to consume nutrients to build new tissues. But the issue is not a quantitative one – it is a qualitative one: it is important not to eat “for two”, but to eat delicious and healthy food!